Testosterone is a male sex hormone that is produced in the testicles. It has a great effect on muscle size. The more testosterone a man’s body produces (Hypergonadism), the bigger and stronger his muscles become. Additionally, testosterone gives men their masculinity, facial hair, and muscular build, promotes the production of red blood cells, elevates mood, maintains bone strength, and improves cognitive function. However, Age-related declines in testosterone levels are a normal part of life. Low testosterone, also known as Low T, can result in undesirable symptoms. In this blog, we will be discussing signs of high testosterone in a man as well as signs of low testosterone, their impact on the general and mental health of men, and available treatment options.
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What is Male Hypogonadism (Low Testosterone)?
Male hypogonadism (low testosterone) is a condition that is caused when the testes (male reproductive glands) do not produce enough testosterone.
The following sign indicates low T:
- Low sex drive,
- Difficulty in sleeping,
- Fatigue or decrease in energy level,
- Increase in body fat,
- Decreased muscle mass,
- Irritability or Mood changes,
- Erectile dysfunction, and
What Causes Hypogonadism?
The amount of testosterone in a man’s body gradually decreases as his age increases. This natural decline begins after the age of 30 and continues (at a rate of about 1% per year) throughout his life. Hypogonadism is classified into two types:
The testicles do not respond to hormone stimulation in primary hypogonadism. This can be due to a congenital disorder like Klinefelter’s syndrome, or it can be acquired as a result of radiation therapy, chemotherapy, mumps, tumors, or testicular trauma.
This occurs when a disease interferes with either the hypothalamus or the pituitary gland, which are the main glands that release hormones to stimulate the testes to produce testosterone. A variety of circumstances can be the reason, including:
- Systemic illness,
- Side effects of medication,
- Toxins (alcohol and heavy metals),
- liver cirrhosis, and
What is Male Hypergonadism (High Testosterone)?
Hypergonadism is a condition in which the gonads produce excessive amounts of hormones. As a result, there will be higher-than-normal levels of both testosterone and estrogen.
Signs of high testosterone in a man manifest in:
- Initial growth spurts,
- Mood changes,
- A lower & deeper voice,
- More muscle mass,
- Increased sex drive, and
- Spontaneous erections and nocturnal emissions.
The onset of physical and emotional changes may not be unusually early or significant enough to cause psychological or long-term physical complications. Men who develop hypergonadism after puberty may experience premature hair loss.
What Causes Hypergonadism?
The underlying cause of hypergonadism and what brings on the signs of high testosterone in a man is frequently unknown. Several medical conditions have been linked to hypergonadism, including:
- Tumors in the ovaries or testes (benign or malignant) liver or kidney disease,
- Severe infections,
- Autoimmune disorders, such as Hashimoto’s thyroiditis and Addison’s disease,
- Genetic hormonal abnormality, and
- Injury to the pituitary gland, genital glands, pineal glands, adrenal glands, or endocrine glands.
What are the Functions of Testosterone?
In men, testosterone helps maintain a number of vital bodily processes, such as:
- Sperm production,
- Maintain sex drive,
- Gives strength,
- Muscle mass distribution of fat,
- Bone thickness maintenance, and
- Production of red blood cells.
Because testosterone has such a broad range of effects, both Hypergonadism and Hypogonadism can result in significant psychological and physical changes.
How Are Hypo- and Hypergonadism Diagnosed?
- Clinical symptoms like obesity, nephrotic syndrome, and thyroid issues.
- Estimates of serum hormone levels are made.
- Analyses of the sperm are performed to assess the constituents.
- The levels of iron saturation are determined.
Brain MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) can identify pituitary gland disorders.
What is the Treatment for Hypogonadism?
If your low testosterone levels are caused by an underlying medical condition or a lifestyle factor (such as obesity), then treating the underlying condition will be a part of your treatment plan.
In these cases, testosterone levels may be able to return to normal after treatment or a lifestyle change. Unfortunately, this is not always an option. In such cases, your doctor may advise you to do one, some, or all of the following:
Testosterone Replacement Therapy (TRT):
Your doctor may recommend injectable testosterone. This, in turn, should increase sperm production. Testosterone supplementation may also be prescribed to improve your overall health and well-being, even if it will not solve your fertility problem.
While most commonly associated with female infertility, Clomid can also be used to increase testosterone levels in men.
IVF can be used in conjunction with or in place of hormonal supplementation. If you have female fertility issues, your doctor may advise you to try IVF first.
IVF with ICSI:
An individual sperm is directly injected into an egg during IVF-ICSI.
Testicular Sperm Extraction (TESE):
If you have a low or no sperm count, your doctor may recommend testicular sperm extraction (TESE). This involves removing sperm directly from the testes via a biopsy.
What is the Treatment for Hypergonadism?
It is difficult to treat the signs of high testosterone in a man. It is more difficult to reduce hormone levels than it is to increase hormone levels.
The hormonal treatments for hypergonadism include a combination of hormones tailored to your specific levels. This can be a time-consuming process. Finding the right combination of hormones at the right dosages to treat signs of high testosterone in man may take some time.
If a specific cause can be identified, treatment will center on treating that condition. Whether a gland has a tumor, for example, the tumor may need to be surgically removed. If you have a severely underactive thyroid, you may be given high doses of thyroid medication to help restore a healthier body.
What are the Potential Complications of Hypogonadism?
Hypogonadism can cause additional, potentially life-threatening health problems if left untreated and given enough time. The most prevalent Hypogonadism signs are the following:
Male hypogonadism is frequently associated with metabolic syndrome, which includes obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. The effects of testosterone on the arteries are conflicting. Many scientists believe testosterone contributes to the increased prevalence of heart disease and hypertension.
Hypogonadism and diabetes are inversely related. The presence of one increases the chances of the other. Diabetes is not always associated with hypogonadism, but vascular factors, medications, cigarettes, alcohol, and systemic disorders such as hypertension, heart disease, and dyslipidemia can all contribute to testosterone deficiency.
It is believe that hormones have anti-inflammatory properties. In hypogonadism, hormone levels fall, resulting in less anti-inflammatory action.
Hypogonadism contributes to the development of atherosclerosis by increasing inflammation and altering endothelial function, as well as a variety of other cellular pathways involved in the disease’s etiology.
It has been said that low hormone levels are link to increase insulin resistance. Hormone replacement therapy can help with this.
Low hormone levels have also been link to vascular stiffness, obesity, and osteoporosis.
What are the Potential Complications of Hypergonadism?
Polycythemia, a type of blood cancer, is associate with high hormone levels.
Reproductive Tract Cancer:
Reproductive tract cancer is associate with both low and high hormone levels.
Increased hormone levels can result in an unfavorable lipid profile, leading to heart disease.
Increased hormone levels can cause increased sebum secretion, changes in skin cellular activity, inflammatory processes, and the colonization of hair follicles by the bacteria P. acnes. This can lead to acne.
It is a condition that causes dark or rough hair to grow on the face, chest, and back of women in a male-like pattern. A common cause of hirsutism is an excess of male hormones (androgens), particularly testosterone which is one of the leading signs of high testosterone in a man.
Pattern Hair Loss:
Individuals with hypergonadism experience U-shaped hair loss.
Severe Mood Swings:
Mood swings occur when serotonin levels rise and fall rapidly, resulting in an emotional roller coaster. Serotonin production is regulate by both male and female sex hormones, which influence mood.
The two most prevalent endocrine-related gonadal disorders are hypo- and hypergonadism. Other causes include genetic disorders, trauma, and cancers. In contrast to hypogonadism, hypergonadism is a rare condition that is typically cause by a more serious medical condition and the signs of high testosterone in a man vary as compare to low testosterone. Both too much or too little testosterone in the body can cause problems. Testosterone tests can help determine total or free testosterone levels in the body. These levels could be crucial in determining any underlying issues.
Treating the underlying cause and working with a physician near you to help control hormone levels and avert the signs of hypergonadism in men and signs of hypogonadism may help you avoid or at least reduce the complications of hypergonadism.